What is Depression?

Depression is a mental health or mood disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. It goes beyond the normal fluctuations in mood that everyone experiences and can significantly impact a person's thoughts, feelings, behavior, and overall well-being.

Symptoms of depression can vary from person to person, but some common signs include:

  • Persistent sadness or a feeling of emptiness
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in most activities
  • Changes in appetite or weight (either increased or decreased)
  • Insomnia or excessive sleeping
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt
  • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
  • Recurring thoughts of death or suicide

Depression is a serious condition and can affect anyone regardless of age, gender, or background. It is essential to note that depression is not a sign of weakness.  Nor s it something that a person can simply "snap out of." It is a complex condition that often requires professional help to treat effectively There are various factors that can contribute to the development of depression, such as genetics, brain chemistry, personality traits, life events, and other medical conditions.

Managing Depression

Those that have depression often find it difficult to talk about, but nearly 17% of us will experience it at some time in life. And it has become the leading cause of disability worldwide. Many treatments exist that may help to reduce feelings of depression but unfortunately it can be very difficult to successfully treat. Treatment commonly involves therapy, medication, or a combination of both, depending on severity and individual needs. There are other options such as TMS and ECT that are often tried in treatment-resistant cases.  With appropriate treatment and support, many people can effectively manage their depression and improve their quality of life.

How Does Ketamine Work to Treat Depression?

Depression is a pervasive mental health condition affecting millions worldwide and is the most common condition that we treat in a ketamine clinic. Traditional treatments like antidepressants and therapy have been effective for many individuals, but a significant portion of patients still struggle to find relief. In recent years, ketamine has emerged as a revolutionary treatment option for treatment-resistant depression.

Understanding Ketamine

Ketamine is an FDA-approved medication that has been used for many decades as an anesthetic agent. It is considered an essential medication by the World Health Organization due to its high degree of safety and efficacy. It is commonly used in situations ranging from treating wounded soldiers in the battlefield, complex cardiac surgeries and if often the top choice of anesthetic for children. FDA approval does not imply that there are no risks but rather that the benefits outweigh any potential risks. Ketamine’s unique properties have sparked interest in the medical community, leading to extensive research into its potential as an antidepressant.

NMDA Receptor Modulation

The key to ketamine's antidepressant effect lies in its interaction with the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors in the brain. NMDA receptors play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and learning. However, in cases of depression, these receptors may become dysregulated, contributing to the disorder's symptoms.

Ketamine acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist, temporarily blocking these receptors. This action leads to a cascade of molecular events that ultimately increase the release of a neurotransmitter called glutamate. This increased glutamate release triggers a series of neuroplasticity mechanisms, enhancing synaptic connectivity and promoting the formation of new neural connections.


Rapid Onset of Antidepressant Effects

One of the most remarkable aspects of ketamine therapy is its rapid onset of antidepressant effects. Unlike traditional antidepressants that may take weeks to exhibit benefits, ketamine often shows improvements within hours or days. This is particularly significant for patients at risk of self-harm or those experiencing severe depressive symptoms.

Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis

Ketamine's ability to stimulate neuroplasticity processes like neurogenesis (the generation of new neurons) and synaptogenesis (the formation of new synapses) contributes to its efficacy as an antidepressant. These mechanisms help repair damaged neural circuits and create new pathways, offering a potential explanation for its long-lasting benefits.

Reduction of Inflammatory Markers

Depression has been associated with increased inflammation in the brain. Ketamine has shown promise in reducing inflammatory markers, which may contribute to its overall antidepressant effect. By addressing both the neurobiological and inflammatory aspects of depression, ketamine offers a more comprehensive treatment approach.

Ketamine Therapy Treatment Plan for Depression

For over two decades the most common protocol used to treat depression and other mood disorders in the setting of a ketamine clinic involves a primary series of six infusions. Research has shown that although one infusion can provide rapid relief, the benefits generally wear off quickly and for some the effects are very subtle. Using a series of infusions allows the ketamine to have a greater and longer lasting effect in the brain resulting in sustained relief.

It is important to bear in mind that the theory of how ketamine works in the brain described above is a process that takes time. And one infusion will not erase years or decades of depression. It is also important to know that ketamine provides life-changing benefits for many patients, but it is not considered a cure and will almost certainly require ongoing maintenance infusions. The frequency can be variable from several weeks to several months in between treatments.

It is recommended to complete at least three infusions prior to deciding if the treatment is working for you. Most patients will be able to identify a clear benefit by then. If after three infusions, you do not feel that the treatment is providing any benefit at all then unfortunately you may be in a minority that do not respond well to ketamine therapy. This is very unfortunate, but it is essential to understand that it is possible you will try the treatment and not find the relief you are looking for. Ultimately, there is no way to know if ketamine will work for you without actually trying it.

Data Driven Ketamine Therapy Treatment for Depression

We use the data from published research to guide treatment. This often leads to using a treatment plan based on the “average patient”. There is merit in this approach but in reality, each patient is an individual and the response to treatment can likewise be very individual. Ketamine infusions are not a one-size-fits-all treatment. Some clients report amazing relief with just one infusion. Others find little benefit after three infusions. But, elect to proceed and ultimately find good benefit after the fourth or fifth infusion. The point being that we always proceed one step at a time. NW Ketamine Infusion does not offer packages of infusions because there should be no pressure to proceed if the treatment isn’t right for you.

Caution and Considerations When Using Ketamine Therapy for Depression

While ketamine shows significant potential as an antidepressant, it is essential to undergo a thorough screening prior to initiating treatment. Most patients can safely receive ketamine therapy. There are a few medical conditions that might require treatment prior to beginning therapy or stop you from receiving this treatment. A few examples are uncontrolled hypertension, active substance abuse, pregnancy or unstable cardiac disease. Ketamine is not a first-line or stand-alone treatment for mood disorders and is intended to be one component of a multimodal treatment regimen.


Although the potential for addiction is extremely low, ketamine can be abused or misused. Close monitoring by qualified medical professionals is crucial during ketamine administration to ensure safety and appropriate dosing.


Ketamine represents a groundbreaking advancement in the treatment of depression, offering hope for those who have not responded well to traditional therapies. According to some reports, it is the most effective antidepressant medication available today. Its unique ability to modulate NMDA receptors and promote neuroplasticity processes has the potential to transform mental health care. As research in this area continues, we must strike a balance between embracing innovation and ensuring the safety and well-being of patients. With continued research and responsible use, ketamine holds the promise of brightening the lives of many who suffer from depression.

If you have tried other treatments and still suffer from feelings of depression, ketamine infusion therapy may help. Please contact us to schedule a free initial consultation to see if this treatment is right for you.